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U+611B, 愛
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-611B

[U+611A]
ЦЈК јединствени идеограми
[U+611C]

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Редослед писања
13 потеза

Han character

(Kangxi radical 61, +9, 13 strokes, cangjie input 月月心水 (BBPE), четири-угла 20247, composition𢖻)

Derived characters

Related characters

Descendants

References

  • KangXi: page 395, карактер 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: карактер 10947
  • Dae Jaweon: страна 732, карактер 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: том 4, страна 2323, карактер 1
  • Unihan data за U+611B

Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Кинески


trad.
simp.
alternative forms
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Писано Стандардни Кинески?)
  • (Кантонски)
  • (Класични)
  • (Ган)
  • Oi (Hakka)
  • Ái (Мин Донг)
  • Ài (Мин Нан)
  • (Ву)

Glyph origin

Историјски облици карактера
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
愛-bronze-warring.svg 愛-seal.svg
Знакови у истом фонетском низу () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Стари Кинески

Originally , a phono-semantic compound (形聲): phonetic  + semantic  (heart).

As early as the Qin dynasty, a meaningless component (“foot”) was added to the bottom of the character, as with some other characters depicting people. Compare (from ).

Further corruption turned the original phonetic into ⿱爫冖.

Etymology

Based on Baxter's (1992) Old Chinese reconstruction /*ʔɨts/, STEDT suggests that it is from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ŋ-(w)aːj (to copulate; to love; to be gentle). Compare Proto-Karen *ʔai (to love), whence Pa'o Karen [script needed] (ʔái, to love), S'gaw Karen အဲၣ် ('ɛ̀, to love); Southern Bai e⁴⁴ (love); Mizo hma-ngaih (to love, to like); Jingpho nwai (to respect, to love), ngwi (to be gentle); Бурмански ငွေ့ (ngwe., to be gentle, moderate). The Chinese word is related to a Tibeto-Burman allofam without initial *ŋ-. STEDT states that an Old Chinese reconstruction of /*ʔɨjs/ for is also possible because Old Chinese rhyming does not provide direct evidence of contacts with *-t.

However, Baxter and Sagart (2014) reconstructs /*[q]ˁə[p]-s/, which ends in *-p-s instead. The Old Chinese contrast between *-p-s and *-t-s was lost at a late stage of Old Chinese. The final *-p is not reflected in the Tibeto-Burman comparandum provided by STEDT, making the likelihood that the Chinese form is related to the rest very low (Sagart, 2019). Behr (2016) suggests a derivation from a verbal root meaning "to draw in; to inhale; to suck in", relating it to (OC *qʰ(r)əp, “to inhale”), (OC *qʰˁ[ə]p, “to sip”), (OC *qʰəp-s, “to sigh with regret”), (OC *qˁəp-s, “to pant”), (OC *C.qʰəp-s, “vapour; breath”).

Pronunciation


Нота: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Нота:
  • ái - literary;
  • ó̤i - vernacular.
  • Мин Нан
  • Нота: written as for some senses.

    Definitions

    1. to love
      /   ―  àiguó  ―  to love one's country; to be patriotic
      /   ―  ài nǐ.  ―  I love you.
    2. to treasure; to value
      面子 / 面子  ―  ài miànzi  ―  to be sensitive about one's reputation
    3. to like; to be fond of; to be keen on
      說話 / 说话  ―  ài shuōhuà.  ―  He likes to talk.
      豬肉 / 猪肉  ―  Wǒ bù ài chī zhūròu.  ―  I don't like to eat pork.
    4. to begrudge; to be reluctant
    5. to be prone; to be easy to
      發脾氣 / 发脾气  ―  ài fāpíqì  ―  to be short-tempered
      生鏽 / 生锈  ―  Tiě ài shēngxiù.  ―  Iron rusts easily.
    6. love; affection
    7. love; benevolence
      人間 / 人间  ―  yí'àirénjiān  ―  to leave love behind
    8. something one loves; someone whom one loves
      /   ―  gē'ài  ―  to sacrifice something one loves to someone else
    9. Honorific for someone else's daughter; variant of .
      /   ―  lìng'ài  ―  your precious daughter
    10. beloved
      /   ―  ài  ―  beloved wife
      /   ―  àijiàng  ―  beloved general
    11. (Cantonese, Hakka, Wu, Teochew) to want (an object)
      咁多 / 咁多 [Cantonese]  ―  ngo5 m4 oi3 gam3 do1. [Jyutping]  ―  I don't want that much.
    12. (Hakka, Min) to want (to do)
    13. (Hakka, Min) to need to; must
      注意 [Taiwanese, trad.]
      注意 [Taiwanese, simp.]
      Ū chi̍t 點 ài chù-ì--ê. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
      There's one thing you must bear in mind.
    14. (archaic) Alternative form of (“to hide”).
    15. A презиме​..

    Usage notes

    • When used for people, usually refers to romantic love. When used like this, older Mandarin speakers often describe the use of this term as overly 肉麻 (“overly romantic; corny; cheesy”). For this reason, the word 喜歡喜欢 (“to like”) might be used instead. Using the word 喜歡喜欢 literally means like, but when used in a romantic context (especially boyfriend/girlfriend), it actually means love. Compare Јапански 好き (suki). However, younger Mandarin speakers, especially those who have been in love for some time, seem to have been influenced somewhat by Western culture, and are now using the verb much more often than was socially acceptable in the past.

    Synonyms

    Compounds

    Descendants

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Others:

    • ? Proto-Hlai: *ʔəːp (to love)

    Further reading


    Flag of Japan.svg Јапански


    Kanji

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings

    Compounds

    Etymology 1

    Kanji за овај терм
    あい
    Степен: 4
    on’yomi

    From Средњи Кинески .

    Compare modern Мандарин (ài).

    Pronunciation

    Noun

    (あい) (ai

    1. love
      (あい)(つよ)い。
      Ai wa tsuyoi.
      The love is strong.
      (あい)()つ。
      Ai wa katsu.
      The love wins.
    2. affection
      Синоним: 愛情 (aijō)
    3. tenderness
    4. Овај израз захтева дефиницију. Молим вас помозите и додајте превод, затим уклоните текст {{rfdef}}.
      Синоним: 愛想 (aiso)
    5. (Buddhism) Овај израз захтева дефиницију. Молим вас помозите и додајте превод, затим уклоните текст {{rfdef}}.
    6. (Christianity) agape
    Synonyms
    Derived terms

    Proper noun

    (あい) (ai

    1. a female given name
    2. a презиме​.

    Affix

    (あい) (ai

    1. love
    2. (US) Short for 愛州 (Lua грешка in Модул:place/data at line 2859: attempt to call field '?' (a nil value).).

    Etymology 2

    Kanji за овај терм
    まな
    Степен: 4
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling

    Originally a compound of (ma, true, genuine) +‎ (na), an Стари Јапански version of modern Јапански (no, possessive particle).[3]

    The use of here is an example of ateji (当て字).

    Pronunciation

    Prefix

    (まな) (mana-

    1. before a common noun, expresses a sense of admiration or value: good, genuine; compare English the real deal
    2. before a noun describing a person, expresses praise or fondness: dear, beloved
    Derived terms

    Noun

    (まな) (mana

    1. (archaic, derived from prefix sense) something dear or loved

    Proper noun

    (まな) (mana

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 3

    Used as ateji in various names. is a very common element in many, many names.

    Proper noun

    (あづみ) or (ああい) or (あいか) or (あいす) or (あき) or (あこ) or (あみか) or (あおい) or (ありさ) or (あや) or (あゆ) or (ちぎり) or (ちか) or (ちかし) or (えりな) or (はあと) or (ひかり) or (いと) or (いとし) or (いつみ) or (いずみ) or (かな) or (かなえ) or (かなさ) or (きずな) or (こころ) or (このむ) or (まどか) or (まなぶ) or (まなみ) or (めづる) or (めご) or (めぐ) or (めぐみ) or (めぐむ) or (めい) or (なる) or (なるこ) or (のぞみ) or (らぶ) or (るい) or (さら) or (さらん) or (つぐみ) or (つくみ) or (うい) or (よし) or (よしき) or (よしみ) (azumi or āi or aika or aisu or aki or ako or amika or aoi or arisa or aya or ayu or chigiri or chika or chikashi or erina or hāto or hikari or ito or itoshi or itsumi or izumi or kana or kanae or kanasa or kizuna or kokoro or konomu or madoka or manabu or manami or mezuru or mego or megu or megumi or megumu or mei or naru or naruko or nozomi or rabu or rui or sara or saran or tsugumi or tsukumi or ui or yoshi or yoshiki or yoshimi

    1. a female given name

    References

    1. 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Hangugeo-Chosonmal.png Корејски


    Etymology

    From Средњи Кинески .

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅙᆡᆼ〮 (Yale: qóy)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] ᄃᆞᅀᆞᆯ〮 (Yale: dòzól) ᄋᆡ〯 (Yale: ǒy)

    Pronunciation

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ɛ(ː)] ~ [e̞(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)/(ː)]
      • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 사랑 (sarang ae))

    1. Hanja form? of (love).

    Compounds

    References

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Okinawan

    Kanji

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings


    Old Japanese

    Alternative forms

    Etymology

    Originally a compound of (ma, true, genuine) +‎ (na, apophonic form of possessive particle (no2)).

    Noun

    (mana) (kana まな)

    1. something dear or loved
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3462)
        安志比奇乃夜末佐波妣登乃比登佐波爾麻奈登伊布児我安夜爾可奈思佐
        asi-pi1ki2 no2 yamasapabi1to2 no2 pi1to2 sapa ni mana to2 ipu ko1 ga aya ni kanasisa
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)

    Derived terms

    Descendants

    • Јапански: (mana-)

    Natively Vietnamese-speaking areas.png Вијетнамски


    Han character

    : Hán Việt readings: ái-tdcndg;tdcntd;gdhn;bonet;genibrel, áy-bonet
    : Nôm readings: ái-tdcndg;tdcntd;gdhn;bonet;genibrel;taberd, áy-tdcndg;tdcntd;gdhn;bonet;genibrel;taberd, ải-tdcndg

    1. Hán tự form of ái, “love
    2. Nôm form of áy (troubled; anxious).

    Compounds

    References



    (кинески)

    Објашњење.

    Изговор:

    пинјин: ài  
    Аудио: Loudspeaker.svg(датотека)
    Шаблон:zh-cir

    Радикал:

    61

    Шаблон:Karakter

    Значења:

    ...

    Примери:

    Викицитати1. Јованова, глава 4

    Синоними:

    ...


    Хомофони:

    ...

    Хомографи:

    ...

    ХСК ниво:

    ...

    Асоцијације:

    ...

    Изведене речи:

    ...


    Сродни чланци са Википедије:


    Преводи

    • Енглески:
    • Француски:
    • Немачки:
    • Италијански:
    • Шпански:
    • Португалски:
    • Арапски:
    • Руски:
    • Грчки:
    • Бугарски:
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    Референце

    Шаблон:Kateg

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    Претходна Страна Наредна

    • ... broj strane ... broj strane
    Проширени садржај

    Шаблон:kljuc/119001

    Библијске све речи:119:001 {{{2}}} {{{3}}} Кључна реч број:00004

    Light cone.svg
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    32{663 755 838 837 836 835 834 833 832 831 830 829 828 827 826 825 824 823 822 821 820 819 818 817 816 815 814 813 812 811 723 626}
    31{664 756 839 913 912 911 910 909 908 907 906 905 904 903 902 901 900 899 898 897 896 895 894 893 892 891 890 889 810 722 625}
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    Реч:4
    00001 Претходни: 2
    Следећи: 3