-s

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Садржај

Енглески[уреди]

Изговор[уреди]

Етимологија 1[уреди]

Од Средњи Енглески -s, -es, од Стари Енглески -as, nominative-accusative plural ending of masculine a-stem (i.e. strong) declension nouns, од Пра-Германски *-ōs, *‑ōz, од Пра-Индо-Европски *-es, *-oes (plural endings). The spread of this ending in later Middle English was once argued to have been the result of Anglo-Norman influence; however, -as was already the most common Old English plural marker (used in approximately 40% of Old English nouns), and was initially more common in the North of England where French influence was weakest, only later gradually spreading south. Cognate with Шкотски -s (plural ending), Saterland Frisian -s (plural ending), Западни Фризијски -s (plural ending), Холандски -s (plural ending), Low German -s (plural ending), Дански -er (plural ending), Шведски -r, -ar, -or (plural ending), Исландски -ar (plural ending), Готски -𐍉𐍃 (-ōs, nominative plural ending of a-stem masculine nouns) (note that Немачки -er has a different origin).

Суфикс[уреди]

-s

  1. Used to form regular plurals of nouns.
    one computerfive computers
  2. Used to form many pluralia tantum (nouns that are almost or entirely without singular forms).
    shorts, sunglasses
  3. Used to form a word referring to a specific decade in the Gregorian calendar. Appended to the first year of the decade.
    1970s, 1890s
Корисне белешке[уреди]
  • (regular plurals): In semi-formal or formal contexts, where the plurality of a noun depends on some unknown aspect of the sentence, the s may be parenthesised: "The winner(s) will be invited to a prize ceremony."
  • (decade): Decades formed with -s are usually pronounced as if they were written as two separate numbers. For example, 1970s is read as nineteen-seventies, as if it were written as 19 70s, not as *nineteen-hundred seventies or *one thousand nine hundred and seventies. A notable exception to this arose after the end of the 2000s, when the (relatively uniform) pronunciation of the years in that decade as two-thousand (and) _____ was continued for the following decade for some speakers. The pronunciation of the 2010s as twenty-tens largely took over starting in 2010, but it has not completely stamped out the previous two-thousand (and) _____ pronunciation which, again, was uniform in the prior decade. It remains to be seen if this will continue into the 2020s. Of note is that, some speakers, when speaking retroactively about the 2000s, now apply the 2010s' common pronunciation to the 2000s as well. In other words, they would pronounce 2001 as twenty-oh-one instead of two-thousand (and) one.
Изведени термини[уреди]
Преводи[уреди]

Шаблон:transguide

See also[уреди]

Etymology 2[уреди]

From Средњи Енглески -(e)s (third person singular ending of verbs), from Northumbrian Стари Енглески -es, -as (third person singular ending). Replaced historical Old English third person singular ending -(e)þ, -aþ (-eth). The falling together of the second and third person singular verb forms in Old English is believed to be due to Северно германски influence, where the employment of the same verbal endings for both 2nd and 3rd singular indicative follows a similar pattern to that seen in Old Norse (e.g. þú masar, hann masar; þú þekkir, hann þekkir; etc.). See -est.

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Used to form the third-person singular indicative present tense of verbs.
    to eathe eats

Usage notes[уреди]

  • In Standard English, the -s suffix is only used to mark the third person singular present of verbs; however, in some varieties of English, particularly northern English, Scottish, US Southern and AAVE, the -s can be extended to other persons/numbers as well, as in: I eats me spinach; I hates the Yankees; they likes it here; etc.
See also[уреди]
Derived terms[уреди]

see Category:English third-person singular forms

Etymology 3[уреди]

From Средњи Енглески -es, from Стари Енглески -es, the masculine and neuter genitive singular ending of strong nouns. More at -'s.

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Used in the formation of certain English adverbs.
    forward + ‎-s → ‎forwards
    downward + ‎-s → ‎downwards
    alway + ‎-s → ‎always
    sometime + ‎-s → ‎sometimes
    betime + ‎-s → ‎betimes
    while + ‎-s → ‎whiles
    betide + ‎-s → ‎betides
    toward + ‎-s → ‎towards
    beside + ‎-s → ‎besides
    evening + ‎-s → ‎evenings
    unaware + ‎-s → ‎unawares


Derived terms[уреди]

Etymology 4[уреди]

A variant spelling of -'s, partly an archaism, partly by dropping the apostrophe.

Alternative forms[уреди]

  • -'s (on pronouns; now nonstandard)

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. (on pronouns) Possessive marker, indicating that an object belongs to the word bearing the marker.
  2. (on nouns, now nonstandard) Alternative form of -'s
Usage notes[уреди]
  • In most cases where -s is found nowadays as a possessive case marker, it is a simple misspelling of -'s. However, possessive determiners derived from personal pronouns use -s (e.g. its, not it's). The same is true of pronouns derived from possessive determiners (e.g. theirs, not their's). The possessive form of who takes -se (whose, not who's).
  • Bare -s is used in some business names that derive from possessive family names, e.g. Barclays and Harrods, but compare Sainsbury’s; compare Wikipedia's article on possessives in business names. In speech, /z/ (or /s/) is sometimes added to business names which have neither -s nor -'s in writing, resulting in s-forms, which see.

Etymology 5[уреди]

Шаблон:rfelite

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Hypocoristic suffix
    Babs; moms; pops; homes; toots
Derived terms[уреди]
Категорија Енглески речи са наставком -s није пронађена

Danish[уреди]

Suffix[уреди]

Шаблон:da-suffix

  1. Used to form the genitive case of nouns.
    Danmarks dronning — the Queen of Denmark
    Københavns snefald — snowfall in Copenhagen

Dutch[уреди]

Etymology 1[уреди]

Unknown. Not present in Стари Холандски, which used -a from Пра-Германски *-ōz as the plural ending. Possibly spread from Middle Low German -s, -es, from Old Saxon -os, -as, from Пра-Германски *-ōs. Further etymology is unknown, but cognate with Стари Енглески -as.

Suffix[уреди]

-s pl

  1. Used to form regular plurals of nouns that end in certain suffixes or syllables, such as -el, -er, -en, -em, -eur, -aar, -aard, diminutive -je, etc.
    bodem - bodems
  2. Used to form irregular plurals of many other nouns, chiefly of foreign origin.
    telefoon - telefoons
Usage notes[уреди]
  • Nouns ending in unstressed -e generally have a plural in -s and one in -n (ziekte > ziektes, ziekten). Individual words, however, allow just one of the two ways.
  • Most words of Latin origin ending in -um are pluralized either with the suffix -s (museum > museums) or by replacing -um with -a (> musea). The latter tends to be preferred in formal style.

Etymology 2[уреди]

From the genitive case of masculine and neuter nouns and adjectives, Средњи Холандски -s, -es, from Стари Холандски -es, -is, from Пра-Германски *-as, *-is.

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. (archaic, except in fixed expressions) Used to form the genitive case of (strong) masculine and neuter nouns.
    tijd - de tand des tijds
  2. Used to form the genitive case of proper nouns and some pronouns.
    Pieter - Pieters jas
    iemand - iemands jas
  3. Used to form the partitive form of the adjective
    lief - iets liefs
  4. Used to form adverbs
    stad - steeds
Derived terms[уреди]
Категорија Холандски речи са наставком -s није пронађена


The adverbial/adjectival -s combines with other suffixes like :

Etymology 3[уреди]

From earlier -sch, from Средњи Холандски -sch, from Стари Холандски -isc, from Пра-Германски *-iskaz (from which also -isch via German), from Пра-Индо-Европски *-iskos.

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Used to form adjectives of characteristic from nouns.
    winter (winter) + ‎-s → ‎winters (wintery)
    spel (game) + ‎-s → ‎speels (playful)
  2. Used to form adjectives or language names from names of nations or countries.
    Engeland (England) + ‎-s → ‎Engels (English)
    Finland (Finland) + ‎-s → ‎Fins (Finnish)

Estonian[уреди]

Etymology 1[уреди]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg Ово entry недостаје етимолошких информација. Ако сте упознати са пореклом овог израза, додајте га на страницу etymology instructions. Такође можете да разговарате о томе Etymology scriptorium.

Suffix[уреди]

Шаблон:et-adj

  1. creates adjectives from nouns
    au "honour" → aus "honest"
    ilu "beauty" → ilus "beautiful"
    lõbu "pleasure" → lõbus "fun"

Inflection[уреди]

Шаблон:et-decl-õpik

Derived terms[уреди]

Категорија Естонски речи са наставком -s није пронађена


Etymology 2[уреди]

From Proto-Finnic *-nci.

Suffix[уреди]

Шаблон:et-adj

  1. forms ordinal numbers from cardinal numbers
    kolm "three" → kolmas "third"
    kuus "six" → kuues "sixth"

Inflection[уреди]

Шаблон:et-decl-õpik


Finnish[уреди]

Etymology 1[уреди]

From Proto-Finnic *-nci, from Proto-Uralic *-mte.

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Forms ordinal numbers from cardinal numbers, or ordinal pronouns.
    mones
Usage notes[уреди]

Added to the genitive singular (weak grade) stem.

Declension[уреди]

Back vowel harmony: Шаблон:fi-decl-kahdeksas Front vowel harmony: Шаблон:fi-decl-kahdeksas

Etymology 2[уреди]

Contracted from the second-person singular pronoun sa, (sinä in modern standard language), but no longer tied to being used in second-person.

Particle[уреди]

-s (somewhat informal or familiar)

  1. When appended to a second-person singular or plural imperative, gives the command or request slightly rude or impatient tone—often with different verbs and different independent particles adjacent, the tone is different.
    Kuules nyt! (addressing one person)
    Now do listen! (with nyt, quite an established expression of frustration, speaker very impatient)
    Kuulkaas nyt! (addressing many persons or formally one person)
    Now do listen! (same tone as above)
    Tees nämä tehtävät. (addressing one person, tone less impatient)
    Go do these tasks.
  2. When appended to the particle -pa/-pä that is appended to a second-person imperative, gives the command or request a slightly more persuasive or inspiring tone.
    Laitapas lautaset pöytään.
    Hey, go put the plates on the table.
  3. Mainly in informal contexts: a particle appended to an interrogative suffix -ko/-kö of the verb conjugated (also - with the negation verb) in order to bring the conversation partner or a person outside the conversation, talked about, emotionally closer to the speaker, or to create familiarity into the conversation; also to express that closeness or familiarity—sometimes very difficult to translate well into English, in some cases corresponds the tag questions.
    Jaksatkos sinä?
    May you make it maybe?
    Eis Saara opiskele oikeustieteitä?
    Saara studies law, nuh?
  4. (colloquial) appended to the shortened impersonal indicative present form (-n omitted) to soften the command or request or to make it more persuasive.
    Tehdääs tämä huomenna.
    Let's go do this tomorrow.

See also[уреди]

Etymology 3[уреди]

From apocope of the final vowel of -ssa, -ssä.

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. (case suffix, colloquial or dialectal) Alternative form of -ssa (inessive)

French[уреди]

Etymology[уреди]

From Средњи Француски -s, from Стари Француски -s, from Латински -s (accusative).

Pronunciation[уреди]

  • Silent except in liaison environments, when it is pronounced МФА(кључ): /z‿/

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Used to form the regular plurals of most nouns and adjectives.
    homme → hommes
    bon → bons
  2. Used to form the irregular plurals of a few nouns and adjectives in -au, -eu (which regularly add -x) and in -al (which regularly make -aux).
    landau → landaus
    bleu → bleus
    carnaval - carnavals

See also[уреди]


German[уреди]

Etymology 1[уреди]

From Middle High German -es, from Old High German [Терм?].

Alternative forms[уреди]

  • -es
  • -ens (proper nouns ending with a sibilant consonant; dated)
  • -' (proper nouns ending with a sibilant consonant)
  • -'s (common nouns; now proscribed)
  • -'s (proper nouns; correct in certain cases, but often seen as a misspelling)

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Used to form the genitive singular of most masculine nouns, neuter nouns, and proper nouns of all genders.
Usage notes[уреди]

The formation of the strong genitive singular (in -s, -es, or no ending) may be of some difficulty both for learners and native speakers.

Only one form is possible in some nouns:

  • Nouns in unstressed -as, -es,- is, -os, -us remain unchanged (except those in -nis, which make -nisses).
  • Other nouns in -s, -ß, -x, -z take -es.
  • Nouns ending in a vowel or in unstressed -el, -em, -en, -er, -or, -um take -s. (Only those in a diphthong or in -h allow -es, alternatively.)
  • Nouns forming their plural in -s take the same ending also in the genitive singular. (Apparent exceptions will generally have an alternative plural in -e.)

Otherwise, both forms are usually correct, but certain tendencies can be observed:

  • The es-form is strongly preferred in a number of frequently used monosyllables, to the degree that the s-form may even sound odd. No hard rule can be given to identify these nouns; they include e.g. Land, Mann, Weg, etc.
  • The es-form is also preferred, for euphonic reasons, in words ending in certain clusters like -pf, -sch, -st.
  • Most other monosyllables have no clear preference.
  • The s-form is usually preferred in polysyllables, regardless of their being simple or compound and regardless also of stress patterns.

Note, finally, that there is a fairly strong tendency for proper nouns (used with the article) and for newer or less common loanwords to remain unchanged in the genitive singular.

Etymology 2[уреди]

Probably derived from the genitive -s (etymology 1), but developed into a noun-forming suffix in German Low German and Central German dialects.

Suffix[уреди]

-s m

  1. used to form nouns from verb stems
    klacken + ‎-s → ‎Klacks
    schnappen + ‎-s → ‎Schnaps

Etymology 3[уреди]

Borrowed from Middle Low German [Терм?]. Reinforced by the fact that Француски and Енглески also use -s as a plural suffix.

Alternative forms[уреди]

  • -'s (now proscribed)
  • -ens (family names ending with a sibilant consonant)

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Used to form the plurals of some nouns.
  2. Used to form the plurals of personal names, particularly family names.
Usage notes[уреди]
  • The plural ending -s is most typical of loanwords (as in Schals, Parfüms, Videos), though there is a tendency for naturalised loanwords to switch to -e or -en (compare Generäle, Lifte, Pizzen with older Generals, Lifts, Pizzas). Conversely, -s is also used in a certain number of native words (as in Fräuleins, Mädels, Uhus). Moreover, it is the most productive plural marker in contemporary German, typically used to pluralise initialisms (LKWs), neologisms (Honks), and words that do not otherwise have a common plural form (Streits).

See also[уреди]


Hungarian[уреди]

Etymology[уреди]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg Ово entry недостаје етимолошких информација. Ако сте упознати са пореклом овог израза, додајте га на страницу etymology instructions. Такође можете да разговарате о томе Etymology scriptorium.

Pronunciation[уреди]

  • МФА(кључ): [ʃ]
  • (file)

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. (adjective-forming suffix) Added to a noun to form an adjective meaning "having something, a quality".
    (salt)s (salty)
  2. (noun-forming suffix) Added to a noun to form an occupation or a collective noun.
    hajó (ship)hajós (sailor)
  3. (number-forming suffix) Added to an ordinal number to form a digit or figure, cf. the relevant template.
    nulla (zero)nullás (the digit or figure 0)

Usage notes[уреди]

  • (all senses) Harmonic variants:
    -s is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -os is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -as is added to other back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -es is added to unrounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ös is added to rounded front vowel words ending in a consonant

Derived terms[уреди]

Категорија Мађарски adjectiveи са наставком -s није пронађена
Категорија Мађарски nounи са наставком -s није пронађена


See also[уреди]


Kashubian[уреди]

Particle[уреди]

-s

  1. Appended to relative/interrogative pronouns to form indefinite pronouns

Derived terms[уреди]


Manx[уреди]

Alternative forms[уреди]

Suffix[уреди]

Шаблон:gv-suffix

  1. -self (emphatic)

Usage notes[уреди]

See also[уреди]


Middle English[уреди]

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Adverbial genitive ending, developed into the -ce at the end of some words

Descendants[уреди]


Northern Sami[уреди]

Pronunciation[уреди]

Phonetik.svg This entry информације о изговору. Ако сте упознати са IPA онда молим Вас додајте нешто!

Etymology 1[уреди]

From Proto-Samic *-s.

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Forms nouns indicating a material.
  2. Forms nouns from numbers, indicating a group.
    golbma (three) + ‎-s → ‎golmmas (group of three)
Usage notes[уреди]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable in the nominative singular and essive, and the strong grade in the other forms.

Inflection[уреди]

Шаблон:se-infl-noun-odd-ng

Derived terms[уреди]
Категорија Northern Sami речи са наставком -s (material) није пронађена


Etymology 2[уреди]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg Ово entry недостаје етимолошких информација. Ако сте упознати са пореклом овог израза, додајте га на страницу etymology instructions. Такође можете да разговарате о томе Etymology scriptorium.

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Forms adverbs of manner from adjectives.
    buorre (good) + ‎-s → ‎būres (well)
Usage notes[уреди]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Derived terms[уреди]
Категорија Northern Sami речи са наставком -s (manner adverb) није пронађена


Etymology 3[уреди]

From Proto-Samic *-ksë. Cognate with the Finnish translative ending -ksi.

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Forms adverbs indicating direction or a span of time.
    davvi (north) + ‎-s → ‎davás (northwards)
    dálvi (winter) + ‎-s → ‎dálvvás (for the winter)
Usage notes[уреди]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Derived terms[уреди]
Категорија Northern Sami речи са наставком -s (direction adverb) није пронађена


Etymology 4[уреди]

From a merger of two older case endings:

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. The ending of the locative singular case.
Usage notes[уреди]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When possessive suffixes are attached, the suffix reverts to its earlier form -st- (for even-syllable stems) or -stti- (for odd-syllable stems).


Norwegian[уреди]

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Used to form the genitive case of nouns.
  2. Used to form the passive of verbs.

Usage notes[уреди]

  • If the genitive noun already ends with a sibilant, only an apostrophe (-') is added. It is incorrect to use an apostrophe before the s.

Old English[уреди]

Etymology[уреди]

From Пра-Германски *-isjō, *-usjō.

Suffix[уреди]

-s f

  1. (often affects the value or quality of preceding consonants, may or may not cause i-mutation) Feminine noun suffix forming nouns from adjectives and verbs
    milts "mercy" (earlier milds), from milde "gentle, mild"
    liss "grace" (earlier liþs, līþs), from līþe "gentle, limber"
    cwiss (earlier cwiþs) "a saying", from cweþan "to say, speak"

Declension[уреди]


Old French[уреди]

Alternative forms[уреди]

  • -z (for most words that do not end in -e)

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. indicates a nominative singular of a masculine noun or adjective
  2. indicates an oblique plural of a masculine noun or adjective
  3. indicates a (nominative or oblique) plural of a feminine noun or adjective

Descendants[уреди]

  • Middle French: -s
    • French: -s

Portuguese[уреди]

Etymology 1[уреди]

Alternative forms[уреди]

  • -es (after consonants)

Suffix[уреди]

-s m pl, f pl

  1. used to form the regular plural nouns and adjectives which end in vowels

Etymology 2[уреди]

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. (Brazil, slang, rare) used to form slangier forms of certain words
    foi mal (sorry) + ‎-s → ‎foi mals (soz)
    grande coisa (big deal) + ‎-s → ‎grandes coisa (biggie)
    valeu (thank you) + ‎-s → ‎valeus (thanks)

Quechua[уреди]

Alternative forms[уреди]

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Evidential suffix, second-hand information. Indicates that the speaker has not directly experienced the information at hand; hearsay
    Qusqumantas kanki.
    (They say that) you are from Cusco.
    Inisqa qayna ñañantas watukusqan.
    Inez visited her sister yesterday (so I heard).

See also[уреди]


Spanish[уреди]

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Used to form the regular plural of nouns which end in vowels.
    amigo (friend)amigos (friends)
    cocina (kitchen)cocinas (kitchens)

Related terms[уреди]


Swedish[уреди]

Suffix[уреди]

-s

  1. Used to form the genitive case of nouns.
  2. Used to inflect verbs for the passive voice.