Germany

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English[уреди]

Etymology[уреди]

From Средњи Енглески Germanie, from Стари Енглески Germania, from Латински Germānia (land of the Germans), from Germānī, a people living around and east of the Rhine first attested in the 1st century Шаблон:B.C. works of Julius Caesar and of uncertain etymology. The exonym was said by Strabo to derive from germānus ("close kin; genuine"), making it cognate with "germane" and "german", but this seems unsupported. Attempts to derive it from Germanic or Celtic roots since the 18th century[1] are all problematic,[2] although it is perhaps cognate with the Old Irish gair ("neighbor").[3]

Pronunciation[уреди]

Proper noun[уреди]

Germany (countable and uncountable, plural Germanies or Germanys)

  1. (geography) The Central European state formed by West Germany's 1990 absorption of East Germany, with its capital in Berlin.
  2. (geography, historical) The Central European state formed by Prussia in 1871 or its successor states, with their capitals in Berlin.
  3. (geography, historical) A nominal medieval kingdom in Central Europe forming a region of the Carolingian and Holy Roman empires, with various capitals; by extension, the Holy Roman Empire itself, the empire of the Austrian Habsburgs.
  4. (geography, chiefly historical) The nation of the German people, regardless of their political unification (see usage note).
  5. (countable, geography, historical) West or East Germany or any other German state (see usage note); (in the plural) both, several, or all of these states, taken together.

Usage notes[уреди]

In its present use, "Germany" almost always refers to the Federal Republic of Germany.[2] Historically, the extent of "Germany" was a contentious issue known in the 19th century as "The German Question". The political area considered "Germany" might include or exclude areas such as Prussia, Austria, Bohemia, or Switzerland depending on the speaker and context. The area more often described an ethnic region than a polity into the 16th century. In Old English, it was even occasionally used to refer to areas of England held by the Saxons, Angles, etc.[2] The medieval "Kingdom of Germany" is an English anachronism translating the Латински rex Teutonicorum ("king of the Teutons"), which was initially used as a derogatory exonym before being adopted as a formal title of the Holy Roman Emperors in the early Modern period. The title adopted by the medieval Central European rulers themselves was rex Romanorum ("king of the Romans"). Prior to 1990, both the current Federal Republic of Germany and then extant German Democratic Republic were referred to as Germany especially when talking about the two countries collectively or in relation to reunification.

Synonyms[уреди]

Derived terms[уреди]

Шаблон:col4

Related terms[уреди]

Шаблон:col4

Translations[уреди]

See also[уреди]

Шаблон:col4

References[уреди]

  1. See, for example, the variety of derivations cited at "Germans" in the Rev. George William Lemon's English Etymology (1788).
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "German, adj. and n". Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2012.
  3. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. "German". Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1996.

Anagrams[уреди]


Државе Европе/Енглески